In June, the federal government instituted a near-total ban on the domestic commercial trade of African elephant ivory.
Many Alaskans are concerned the backlash from this ban is affecting other ivories.
St. Lawrence Islander Susie Silook is the author of a petition to protect walrus ivory and other marine mammal byproducts from various pieces of state-level legislation imposing additional bans.
With close to 1,000 signatures, Silook sent the petition and a letter to President Barack Obama, which she read from the main stage at the Alaska Federation of Natives convention in Fairbanks last week.
“Dear Mr. President,” Silook read. “I write as a sculptor of walrus ivory and bowhead whale bone from the food sources I was raised on, and as founding member of Sikuliiq, Alaska Native artists’ advocacy group.”
During a field hearing focused on protecting walrus ivory at the AFN convention, Republican Sen. Dan Sullivan recognized that this federal ban does not affect Alaska Natives and their ivory work.
However, the Senator spoke about how individual states have proposed or passed their own bans on ivory that go beyond the federal standards.
“By including walrus, mammoth and whale among the species subject to the ban, states like California and, now, New Jersey, and others are starting to get in line, have gone well beyond the federal standard and created an environment that’s having a chilling effect on the Alaska Native handicraft market that we see is so vibrant just outside the halls of this hearing,” Sullivan said.
Silook spoke during the hearing about the differences in markings between walrus and other types of ivory.
“They’re saying that a lot of the illegal elephant ivory is coming in disguised as mammoth ivory, and there might be something to that, because I’ve never seen elephant ivory,” Silook said. “You have to remove walrus ivory from those descriptions, because it is visually distinguishable, it doesn’t have a cross hatching, it’s got the cracks on it. When you open it up, there’s a core inside that’s different from other ivories.”
One of the other speakers during the hearing was president of Sealaska Heritage Institute Rosita Worl.
She said even though she doesn’t have data to support it, Native artists’ ivory work is valuable to the art world.
“We know that ivory plays a significant role in Alaska small scale subsistence economies and the annual arts and crafts tourist market that is well over $32 million,” she said. “We know that village artisans can make up to $35,000 to $50,000 annually.”
Vera Metcalf, director of Kawerak’s Eskimo Walrus Commission, said the impacts of states banning walrus ivory could affect more than just the ivory handicraft business.
“If walrus is listed on the ESA (Endangered Species Act), it will make it much harder to make the case for walrus ivory based on only the artists’ viewpoint. … But it includes food security concerns that we have because we are so reliant on marine mammals for our subsistence resource.”
Hawaii is the latest state to enact legislation banning the sale, purchase and trade of walrus ivory, whale ivory and mammoth ivory, along with other types as well.
The Hawaii ban will take effect Jan. 1, 2017.